ger-3

    ger-3
    English meaning: to turn, wind
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “drehen, winden”
    Material: A. O.Ind. guṇá-ḥ (*gr̥-nó-s) “ the single thread of a string, line, cord; stain “ (dvi-, tri-guṇa- actually “ consisting of two, three threads “); gárta-ḥ “ carriage seat of the chariot” (“*from rods twisted seat, carriage basket “), compare with formants -mo- O.N. karmr “ parapet, defensive wall, protective wall in front of a trench “, Swe. karm “ back, part of a chair support from wickerwork, carriage basket “ (*gor-mo-s “ wickerwork “). 1. guttural extensions: a. In IE -g: presumably Gk. γυργαθός “ wicker-basket, creel, twisted basket from willows, weir, fish-snaring net “ (-υ-reduced vowel, ending as in κάλαθος “ basket narrow at the base, esp. for wool, for fruit, (carried in procession in honour of Demeter), capital of a column, in this form, wine-cooler, mould for casting iron, reservoir of an oil-lamp “); O.N. kraki “ pole with hook; thin person “; O.H.G. krücho (*krēkan-), kracco (as *kraggan- , gemination form to Gmc. *krag- see under) “ hooked device “, O.N. krükr and changing through ablaut krōkr “bend, bay, hook “ (out of it M.Eng. crōk, nEng. crook “ curvature etc.”), krøkja “crook, snatch “, Swe. kräka, Nor. dial. kreka krak “ grovel, truckle, creep “, kreken “weak, old age”. Besides in Gmc. -g (probably = IE -k) O.H.G. krügo “ hook “; perhaps also O.E. crōg, O.H.G. kruog “crock, pitcher, jug”, if not in any leaning relationship to Gk. κρωσσός (see under under greu-g-). compare from the root form gr-ei- the same extension in O.N. krīkr “bend, bay”, -kriki (from which M.Eng. crike, creke, nEng. creek) “ curvature, bay”; perhaps Ltv. gredzens “ring”. b. In IE -k: O.C.S. sъgrъčiti sę “ draw together, collect, assemble “, Bulg. gъ́rča se “ bend, curve, crook, pull myself together “, gь́rča “wrinkle”, zgъ́rčen “ wizened, shriveled, shrunk, dwindled “, Serb. gȑč “cramp”. Maybe nasalized Alb. ngërç “cramp”, ngërth “kink” c. Nasalized: In IE -k certainly O.N. krü “point, edge, angle “ (*kraŋhō) and probably also Gmc. forms in -g: O.N. kringr m. “ring” = M.H.G. krinc, -ges “ring, battlefield”, Ger. Kring, O.N. kringla “ ring of a circle, circle, compasses, instrument for drawing circles and measuring, calipers “, M.L.G. kringel(e) “ring, round pastry, cake “, M.H.G. kringel (and changing through ablaut krengel) ds., Ger. Kringel; M.H.G. kranc, -ges “ circle, ring, district, region, area “, Ger. Swiss chrangel “ curvature “, M.H.G. krangel “need, tribulation” (from “entanglement, curvature “) and “ring, circle”; O.N. cranga “ grovel, truckle, creep, trudge, lumber “, with figurative meaning krangr “weak, fragile, easily broken; unstable, dilapidated “; O.E. cringan “fall”; in IE -ĝ: O.E. cranc-stæf “ a weaver’s device “, crencestre “ weaver “, M.Eng. crinkled “ twiddled, twisted, rotated, revved, revolved “, Eng. crinkle “bend, curvature, crease, rumple, wrinkle; make a rustling sound “, crank “ lever, handle, curvature “ (as Ger. Swiss chrank), older also cranke “ spool “, M.N.Ger. krunke “ crease, wrinkle, frill, ruffle; frizziness, curliness; ruff “, Du. kronkel “ crease “, krinkel “ loop, noose, snare, crease, wrinkle”, Nor. krenkja “ dislocate, luxate, crick “; with the meaning-development to “ bent from disease, malady “: O.H.G. krankolōn “ stumble, trip; transgress, go astray, lose one’s way, become weak “, M.H.G. krank “ narrow, tight, slim, slender, thin, small, weak”, Ger. krank, O.E. cranc “weak, fragile, easily broken; unstable, dilapidated “, as well as O.E. crincan “ fall in battle, die in battle, die in combat, die in war “(“*bend in agony”); in IE -ĝ (not -g) point at Balt *grenžiō “ turn, twist, rotate “ in Lith. gręžiù, grę̃žti “ turn, twist, rotate, drill, wimble, bore a hole “ (Iter. grąžūti), grįžtù, grį̃žti “ retrovert, turn back, return, go or come back “, grįžte ̃ “ roll of flax “ = Ltv. grī̀ zte “ the twisted together “, Ltv. grìežu “ turn, rotate “ (= Lith. gręžiù), Lith. grą̃žtas “borer”, O.Pruss. granstis ds. (Lith. grą̃žulas “ shaft, pole, rod, beam; long revolving bar used to transfer motion or torque to gears or other parts “ presumably likewise from “ cord, rope, hank, halter, rope with a noose for hanging criminals “). 2. Dental extensions: a. gr-et(h)-: O.E. cradol m. “ cradle “ (*kradula- “ the plaited “), O.H.G. kratto “basket” (*kraddan-), krezzo, M.H.G. krezze, Ger. Krätze “ pannier “ (*krattian). b. Nasalized: O.Ind. granth-, grathnǘ mi, Fut. granthiṣyümi “ coil, bind, wind, tie, knot, fasten, join, attach, tie a knot “, participle grathitá- “winded, knotty, conglobated”, granthí-ḥ m. “knot, joint, intumescence “, grantha-ḥ “knot”, grathín- ‘scheming, deceptive”, grathila- “raving, mad”; but ghatü- “bulk, mass, troop, multitude, crowd” is not a root. (Kuiper Proto-Munda 55 f.). c. ger-d, gr-ed-, nasalized grend-: O.Ir. grinne (*grend-n-i̯o-) “bundle, fagot, bunch, fascis”; O.N. kartr, O.E. cræt m. “ cart “ (probably “ twisted carriage basket “), probably also O.N. kart-nagl “ deformed, twisted nail”, Nor. kart m. “ unripe fruit, knag”, E.Fris. kret ‘shrunk fruit”, M.H.G. krenze “basket”, O.H.G. kranz, Ger. Kranz; Lith. grandìs (reduced grade grundis) “ bracelet, iron ring, hoarfrost of wheel, round cheesecake “, O.Pruss. grandis “ the ring in the plow which connects the plow crossbeam with the front rack “, Ltv. grùods ‘stark twiddled, twisted, rotated, revved, revolved, drall”; Pol. grędać się “ turn, rotate “. 3. Labial extensions: a. ger-bh-, gr-ebh-: O.Ind. grapsa-ḥ, glapsa-ḥ “ bundle, tussock “, next to which with mind. development from *gr̥psa-ḥ guccha-ḥ and as hypersanskrit. back-formation gutsá-ḥ “ tussock, bundle, bunch “; belongs probably better to S. 455. M.H.G. krëbe m. (*kreƀan-) “basket; intestines, entrails “, O.S. kribbia, O.H.G. krippa, O.E. cribb “ crib, manger “, in Ger. (and Du.) also “ wattle fence on shores, fish snaring net, verge of a roof with brushwood bundles “ (tiefstufige additional form M.L.G. krũbbe, O.E. cryb; with Gmc. -pp-: Ger. Swiss chrũp(e) “ crib, manger “, as on the other hand also O.H.G. kripfa); M.L.G. kerve “ weir, net”, O.N. kiarf, kerf(i) n. “bundle, fascicle, sheaf “, O.S. kærve “ grain bundle, fascicle, sheaf “, Swe. dial. karv “basket”, Ice. karfa, körv “basket” (but Ger. Korb, M.L.G. korf nevertheless probably only Lw. from Lat. corbis). In addition behaves perhaps Gk. γρῖφος “ shopping bag, fishing net; somewhat complicated, riddle “ (whereas with π: γρῖπος “fishing net”, γρῑπεύς “ fisherman “), as scrībō, σκάρ-ῑ-φος to *sker- “cut, clip”. b. gerb-, with revelation of the meaning “ crinkle, wrinkle, shrivel, shrink due to excess dryness, wrinkle up, cramp “, but also for other kinds of of bending: O.Ir. gerbach “wrinkly”; O.Pruss. garbis “mountain”, Lith. gárbana (see under) and garbanà f. “ hair lock “; Maybe Pol. garbic się “to hump” : Alb. kërrus “to hump”, kurriz “( hunchbacked) spine” in addition ablaut. O.C.S. grъbъ “dorsum, cramp”, grъbо-nosъ “ crooked-nosed “, Russ. gorb “ hump, hunchback, hunch, outgrowth, elevation, back”, Sloven. grb̂ , grb́ a “ hunch, hump, hunchback, wrinkle”, gŕbati “ make hunchbacked, crook, furrow “; Mod.Ice. korpa f. “wrinkle, crease “, korpna “ contract, shrivel “; a heavy basis, perhaps *gerǝb- (?),seems the base from Arm. karth “ fishhook, hook; knee bow, popliteus, shinbone, leg” (*gr̥̄pti-) and Lith. gárbana f. “ curl “; Berneker 368. c. Nasalized: O.H.G. krim(p)fan, M.H.G. krimpfen, M.L.G. krimpen “ shrink up, shrink “ = O.N. kreppa (krapp) “pull together”, M.H.G. krimpf “crooked; cramp”; O.E. crompeht “ crumpled, wrinkled “, O.H.G. krampf “ writhed, crooked, humped “, substantivized krampf(o) “cramp”, krampf “ hook “, N.Ger. (and as Lw. Ger.) Krampe “ hook for closing “, O.S. kramp(o) “cramp”, Kaus. M.H.G. krempfen (*krampjan) = O.N. kreppa (schw. V.) “pull together”, Mod.Swe. krumpen “ wizened “, O.N. kropna (*krumpna) “ shrink up, become stiff “, O.E. crump, O.H.G. krumpf “ writhed, crooked, humped “. Besides O.E. crumb, O.S. krumb, O.H.G. krump, Ger. krumm presumably for IE u-root from Gk. γρυμπάνειν γρυποῦσθαι, συγκάμπτειν Hes., γρῡπός “crooked” (see S. 389 under B. 2.); Ltv. grumbt “ gotten wrinkled “, grum̃bulaîns “ jolting “; Maybe Alb. grumbullonj “pull together”, grumbull “pile, heap” Lith. grumbù, grubaũ, grùbti (analogical nasalized form for *grumbaũ, *grum̃bti) “ jolting, hard or become insensible “, grubùs (for *grumbùs) “ jolting, hard”; O.C.S. grǫbъ “ἰδιώτης, unlearned, untaught, ill-mannered “, Russ. grúbyj “rough, coarse, raw”, Pol. gręby “wrinkly, rough, adverse “, Pol. grąba, gręba f. “elevation, hill, boundary “; d. grep- or g(e)rǝp- (compare above S. 387 *gerǝb-) in M.L.G. krappe “hook, claw, talon “; maybe Alb. grep “hook” Du. krap f. “cramp”, O.H.G. krü̆ pfo “bent claw, talon, hook”, Ger. Krapfen “hook; pastry of such form “ (Gmc. pp; besides Gmc. -bb- in:) O.H.G. krüpo, M.H.G. krüpe “hook”, Swe. dial. krabbe “hook for the search in water “; maybe Alb. kërrabë “crooked stick of the shepherd” O.N. krappr “eng”, Du. krap ds., Ger. bO.Ir. krapf “unprepossessing, small”, Swiss chräpf ‘strong” (“*thickset)”; O.H.G. Ger. Kraft (from cramping the muscles), O.S. kraft, O.E. cræft “ power, skillfulness, art “, O.N. krǫptr, kraptr m. “ power, witchcraft “, compare (as “ fest worauf bestehen “) O.N. krǫf f. “ demand “, krefja “arrogate”, O.E. crafian ds.; Nor. krav m. “ Ice crust “ (besides O.N. krap n., krapi m. ds.; “wither, shrivel, shrink due to excess dryness, wrinkle up “; N.. -p- probably for root form with IE b). 4. s-extension *gre-s-, only Gmc.: O.H.G. kresan “ grovel, truckle, creep “, Nor. dial. krasen “weak, frail “; presumably O.S. O.H.G. kresso “ goby, small fish “, Ger. Kresse, Kressling ds.; *ger-s- probably in Nor. karra “ shrivel, shrink due to excess dryness, wrinkle up, friz, curl “. Besides from the i-extension *gr-ei- also *gr-ei-s- in M.H.G. krīsen, kreis “ grovel, truckle, creep “. B. root form gr-eu-; grū̆ -mo- “ scraped together “: Gk. γρῦ “ little dirt under the nail “ (i.e. “ what settles while scratching under the nail “); Nor. kryl “ hump, hunchback “ (*krū-li-? *krūvila-?), dial. also skryl, kryla “ krummrũckig sein “ (also gryla), Swe. dial. krylas i hop “ creep together “, Nor. dial. krylt (grylt, skrylt) “ hunchback person” (the forms with g- belong together with O.N. grūfa “ sich vornũberbeugen, auf der Nase liegen “, Ger. Swiss grūben, groppen, gruppen “ crouch down, stoop “ to a versch. root with Gmc. g-); with the meaning “ crooked claw, talon, mit gekrallten Fingern zusammenscharren “: O.S. krauwil, O.H.G. krouwil “ claw, talon, fork with crooked points “, Ger. Kräuel ds., O.H.G. krouwōn , Ger. krauen, O.Fris. krüwia actually “ scratch, scrape with crooked fingers “; maybe Alb.Gheg (*kraue-) kruenj “ scratch, scrape “ with formants -mo-: Gk. γρῡμέα, -είᾱ, -αία “junk, trash, trumpery, of fish small fry, also pouch, bag or chest for old clothes “ (similarly the tü-derivative γρύ̄τη “junk, of fish small fry, woman’s dressing-case or vanity-bag, prob. a workman’s tool-bag, frippery “, γρῡτοδόκη “lumber room”), actually “ scraped together “; Lat. grūmus “ a little heap, hillock of earth “ (as earth scraped together); M.H.G. Ger. Krume; with ū: O.E. crūma m., mnl. krūme (ablaut, krōme), Du. kruim “ crumb “ (“what one scratches from the hard crust “), Ice. krumr, kraumr, Swe. kråm, inkråm (inkrom) “ intestines, entrails of birds and fish, crumbs “. 1. guttural extension greu-g- in: O.Ir. gruc, Ir. grug “wrinkle” (*gruggu-), M.Ir. grucünach “ corrugated “; maybe Alb. (*greu-g-) krunde “ crumb, bread crumbs “ common Alb. -g- > -d- phonetic mutatIon. O.H.G. kriochan “ grovel, truckle, creep “, Ger. kriechen, ablaut. krauchen “ duck, slip, crouch, grovel, truckle, creep “, Krauch “ road curve “ (M.Eng. crouchen, Eng. crouch “duck, stoop”, is Fr. Lw.), M.Du. kroke “wrinkle, crease “, Du. kreuk ds. (*kruki-), M.Du. crooc “ hair lock “ (*krauka-), Nor. krjuka (krauk-) “ shrink up, grovel, truckle, creep “, krūka “ crouch, squat “, krøkla, krykla “ verkrũppelter Baum, hinfalliges Geschöpf, Knochenbrũchigkeit “; in addition probably as ‘staff with crooked handle, grasp” Nor. dial. krykkia, O.E. cryce f., nEng. crutch, O.H.G. krucka, M.H.G. krucke, asächs. krukka “ crutch “ (Gmc. *krukjō); perhaps M.H.G. krūche (Ger. Krauche), O.S. krūka, O.E. crūce “crock, pitcher” (compare above O.H.G. kruog), O.E. crocc, crocca, O.N. krukka “pot, pan”, therefore certainly also old close relationship to Gk. κρωσσός “crock, pitcher” from *κρωκι̯ός (about O.H.G. krūsel “ crucible, melting pot “ etc. s. Falk-Torp under krus m. addendum) stands to the consideratIon. About Ger. Kriechbaum s. Kluge11 under Krieche. 2. Labial extensions: greu-p-: Gk. γρῡπός “ hook-nosed, aquiline, hooked, writhed, crooked, humped, with a curved nose “, γρῡπόω “ bend, crook “, γρύψ, γρῡπός m. “ griffin (Griffin (after the crooked beak and the crooked claws), a bird, part of a ship’s tackle, or anchor “), nasalized γρυμπάνειν γρυποῦσθαι, συγκάμπτειν Hes., wherefore probably at first O.E. etc. krumb “crooked” (see above S. 387). greu-b-: here perhaps schott.-Gael. groban “top or point of a hill” (*grubb-); O.N. krjūpa, O.E. crēopan , M.L.G. krūpen “ grovel, truckle, creep “ (“*curve like a worm “), O.E. cryppan “bow, bend”, Ger. dial. sich krũpfen “ crook oneself “ (Swiss chrũpfen ‘somewhat a bit bend so that it gets a roundish deepening “), M.L.G. kroppen “ bend crooked “, Nor. krøypa (*kraupjan) “crook”; O.N. kryppa f. “ hump, hunchback “, kryppil, O.E. crypel “ cripple “, M.L.G. kröpel ds. (Du. kreupel; M.H.G. krũp(p)el, Ger. Krũppel from N.Ger.), zero grade O.E. créopel “ cripple “; O.E. cropp “ bundle of berries or flowers, ear, goiter, crop “; with expressive intensification: O.H.G. kropf “ crop, bird’s head “, M.L.G. krop ‘swelling, blister, hunch, outgrowth, crop, Bird’s head; trunk, (toter) body”, only in latter meaning O.N. kroppr “trunk”; maybe Alb.Gheg kryja, Tosc krye “ (round) head “ with simple b: O.N. krof n. “trunk, killed animal body “, kryfia “ disembowel “; a *krufta- “ curvature, hill” in M.Du. krocht “hill, farmland, field in the dunes “, O.E. croft ‘small field”; Lith. probably grubine ́ti ‘stagger, stumble”, grùb(l)as m. “rough bumpiness, hillock”. 3. s- Extension greu-s-: M.H.G. M.L.G. krūs “ frizzy, curly “; M.L.G. krūse “ chitterlings, belly fat” (“*the frill, ruffle “); with Gmc. -au- N.Ger. krōs “ Intestine of geese “, M.H.G. (ge)kroese, Ger. Gekröse , N.Ger. krũse (*krūsi-) “wrinkle, crease, furrow, curl “, Du. kreus “ fold in staves “; O.E. créas “dainty”, wFris. kreas “ frilly “; O.H.G. M.H.G. krol (-ll-) “ frizzy “ (*kruzlá-), M.H.G. krol(le), krũlle “ curl “, Nor. krull ds.; Nor. dial. kruslen, krusken “ frail “, N.Ger. krusch “ curled “, M.H.G. krūsp “ frizzy “, Ger. obd. kraust “ frizzy “.
    References: WP. I 593 ff., WH. 623, Trautmann 94 f., 97, 99 f.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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